Passenger Transport Modal Mix by Incorporating Travel Behaviour: A Case Study of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal
Most of the travel demand in developing countries is fulfilled by private vehicles dominated by 2-wheelers due to their affordability, accessibility, and availability, which has direct effects on energy, economy, and environment. To achieve sustainable transport, policies such as electric mobility and mass transport options have been implemented which are mainly focused on technology shift based on technology cost and environmental externalities. Transport modelling in this study was carried out using an additional attribute: travel time which shows the impact of travel behaviour on the optimal modal mix and the consequent impact on energy and emissions. The scenario-based approach using the travel time budget (TTB) concept was used using a bottom-up TIMES modelling framework. The scenario analysis shows the trade-off between the speed of the vehicle, available travel time, and sustainability in transport. The result suggests that the investment in rapid transit would be the potential future mode in Kathmandu valley.
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