The Reliability and Validity Study of the Scale Measuring High School Students’ Attitude Towards Biology: Using Factor Analysis

  • Shahzad Ahmad Department of Mathematics, Federal College of Education, H-9, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Naveed Sultana Department of Secondary Teacher Education, AIOU, H-8, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Sadia Jamil Research Associate, Federal College of Education, H-9, Islamabad, Pakistan
Keywords: Attitude, reliability, factor analysis, biology, validity, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis.


This study focused on the statistical technique using factor analysis to validate the scale measuring high school students’ attitudes towards Biology. The study sample consisted of 500 students (male = 220, female = 280) from public and private institutions offering high school education with Biology as an elective subject, in Islamabad. As part of this study, the scale developed by (Ahmad and Jamil, 2019) for the attitude of students towards biology was adopted. Research has shown that attitude and achievement are interrelated. Previously, research studies used exploratory factor analysis to analyze the validity of the scale construction. The present study used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to fill the gap in the literature because, after exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis is required to test whether the models estimate the intended theoretical constructs. Following the procedure of factor analysis, six factors of the Biology Attitude Scale (BAS) were identified. The findings of the study show that the scale had a multidimensional construct. Further, the internal consistency reliability analysis was performed. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.86 which shows high internal consistency. It is recommended that BAS is a reliable and valid measurement tool that can be used to determine the attitude of secondary students towards Biology.


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Author Biographies

Shahzad Ahmad, Department of Mathematics, Federal College of Education, H-9, Islamabad, Pakistan

Shahzad Ahmad, is an educational Specialist with more than 15 years of diversified experience in the field of Education, especially in Teacher Education. He is currently working as an Assistant Professor (Mathematics) at Federal College of Education, H-9, Islamabad which is a post graduate teacher training institute catering the needs of both Pre-service and In-service teacher’s education and training. He has done his Ph.D. from Allama Iqbal Open University, H-8, Islamabad, Pakistan. His area of interest includes Assessment and Evaluation, Pedagogy, Curriculum Development and Research and Data Analysis. He is also a member of National Curriculum Council (NCC). He is member of Core committee regarding Single National Curriculum (SNC) for Mathematics.

Naveed Sultana, Department of Secondary Teacher Education, AIOU, H-8, Islamabad, Pakistan

Naveed Sultana, currently working as an Associate Professor in one of the most prominent distance learning institution, Allama Iqbal Open University, H-8, Islamabad. She has supervised numbers of post graduates in their research thesis both at M.Phil. and Ph.D. level. Her area of interest is Curriculum and Science Education. She is an author of various international publications and has presented at various forums as well.

Sadia Jamil, Research Associate, Federal College of Education, H-9, Islamabad, Pakistan

Sadia Jamil, currently working as subject specialist in the Federal College of Education, H-9, Islamabad. She is doing her M.Phil. in Science Education and teaching Biological Sciences at post graduate level. Her area of interest includes Psychology, Human Development and Educational Research.


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