Environmental Ergonomics and Postural Job Analysis on Handcrafting Process of a Small-Scale Jewelry Enterprise

  • Hazel Caparas Bulacan State University, Bulacan, Philippines
Keywords: Environmental ergonomics, postural job analysis, jewelry making, plateros, manu-manoor


The Philippine Jewelry Industry has a great potential on contributing to the economic development. Large deposit of gold, abundant reserve of precious stones and cheap skilled labor of Filipino artisans are some of the country’s resources which are essential elements for jewelry making. A dying breed of artistry for the craft poses a high threat to the number of Filipino jewelry makers. Hence, a task analysis intends to help the industry by identifying ergonomic risk factors in the working environment of a typical small-scale jewelry enterprise. It focuses on the traditional ways of jewelry making mainly by handheld tools. Various physical and environmental methods are consolidated to detect risk factors which may potentially lead to occupational disorders. Data analysis plan consists of comparative assessment of actual measurements and acceptable levels for environmental variables. Also, descriptive statistics is used to interpret the results of environmental ergonomics and postural job analysis. The result shows high proportion of non-conformance in illumination and thermal condition of the workplace. The sitting postures of the workers are deviated from neutral working positions. Also, bodydiscomforts are commonly experienced in neck, shoulder, upper back and arm regions. Moreover, recommendations are established to introduce an ergonomically designed workplace.

Author Biography

Hazel Caparas, Bulacan State University, Bulacan, Philippines

Hazel A. Caparas is an ASEAN Engineer and a graduate of Master of Science in Industrial Engineering with specialization in Human Factors and Ergonomics at University of the Philippines – Diliman on June 2017. She received Bachelor of Science in Industrial Engineering in Bulacan State University on 2010. She conducted various studies focusing on Process Improvements and Human Factors and Ergonomics. She also acquired solid experience in operations management as an Operations Analyst in a food manufacturing company for four years. Caparas is currently a College Instructor in a State University handling Industrial Engineering courses such as Human Factors and Ergonomics, Occupational Safety and Health and Facilities Planning and Design.


Florencio M. M., “Jewelry Industry Roadmap,” The Conference of Philippine Jewelers, Inc., 2014.

Manto-Beltran L., “The business of jewelry in the Philippines,” The Manila Times, 1 August 2015.

“Profile and Taxation of the Philippine Jewelry Industry,” NTRC Tax Research Journal, Volume XXV.3, 2013.

“National Profile on Occupational Safety and Health (Philippines),” Occupational Safety and Health Center (OSHC), Manila, September 2006.

“The Prevention of Occupational Diseases,” International Labour Organization, April 28, 2013.

Salvendy G., Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics Fourth Edition, Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.

“Development of the Jewelry Industry,” Board of Investment (BOI), [Online]. Available: http://invest.cfo.gov.ph/pdf/part1/developmetn-of-the-jewelry-industry.pdf. [Accessed 16 February 2018].

“Jewelry designers encouraged to join annual design competition,” Philippine Today, 8 September 2013.

Anema, J.R. et al., “The effectiveness of ergonomic interventions on return-to-work after low back pain; a prospective two year cohort study in six countries on low back pain patients sicklisted for 3–4 months,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, pp. 289–294, 2004.

Del Prado-Lu J., “Anthropometric measurement of Filipino manufacturing workers,” International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 37, pp. 497–503, 2007.

Owen N. et al., “Adults sedentary behavior: determinants and interventions,” Am J Prev Med, vol. 41, pp. 189–196, 2011.

Wang H. et al., “The effect of active sitting on trunk motion,” Journal of Sports and Health Science, vol. 3, pp. 333–337, 2014.

Konz, S., “Work Design: Industrial Ergonomics, 4th Ed.,” Scottsdale, AZ: Publishing Horizons Inc., 1995.